In the previous blog, we discussed the factors that make one
shift different from another, and how an awareness of these differences is
important for the proper management of the workload and staffing for these
shifts. Since each shift is part of the
continuum of the lab operation for that day, when chronic problems are
happening on a particular shift, it is important to determine if the problems
are centered within the shift, or are interrelated to the shifts that precede
or follow as well.
Below are some of the many factors that need to be
considered when performing a root cause analysis of problems that may occur on
- Total workload per person
- Total workload per person compared to other shifts
- Training and Competency of staff working each shift
- Permanent staff / shift ?
or does the staff rotate to/from other shifts
- Presence or availability of supervisory staff during the
- Awareness of personality differences and conflicts between
- Evaluations: are they designed for the specific tasks and
responsibilities for each shift and performed by supervisory personnel who are
familiar with the operations of that shift?
- Appropriateness of instrumentation for different workloads
and test menus
- Shift specific policies governing routine and STAT orders,
including which tests are included in each category, and expected turnaround
- Support when needed during each shift
- Policies for performance of quality control, calibrations,
and maintenance during each shift
- Policies for test management when expected testing cannot
be performed on each particular shift
- Inventory control
- Shared work between shifts: policies governing testing
already underway when next shift begins
- Availability of policy and procedure manuals, other
resources on every shift.
- Ability for all staff
to participate in laboratory meetings and continuing education
- If rotating staff: proper training for work on each shift.
- Communication with other departments that interact with
the laboratory: ER, ICU, Radiology, Respiratory Therapy, Outpatient.
- Expectations of Physicians, Nursing staff and other
professionals for turn around times for STAT and routine orders
- Have nurses and others external to the laboratory been
trained on proper specimen collection, labeling and handling?
- Listen to and act on all complaints and other feedback
from lab staff, physicians/nurses, and patients as soon as possible.
- Proficiency Testing needs to be performed by each shift
- QA each shift
- Review workload changes annually to adjust staffing levels
and instrumentation if appropriate.
These are not all the factors to be considered, of course,
but for effective corrective actions and the maintenance of quality standards,
these make a good start when getting to the root cause of chronic problems
occurring on different shifts.
Have you noticed that when you work a different shift, it
almost feels like you are working in a different lab? Whether we compare
day/evening, evening/night or night/day interfaces, we often have different
priorities, different responsibilities and different ways of communicating with
our clients. The outside world views the laboratory as a cohesive operation,
whether 24/7 or 9/5, and expects the same level of quality, turn-around time
and staff expertise, regardless of when testing occurs.
Of course, while many labs are busiest during the day,
especially those that serve physician offices, group practices, and hospitals,
there are many that are busiest in the evening or on the night shift, such as
reference labs, or Walk In / ER Clinic labs. Test volume is the single greatest
determinant of how the lab is organized for each shift: it determines test
menus, instrument needs, staffing size and specialty experience, extent of
automation for specimen handling, tests performed, results reporting, and
documentation. As a result, determinations are made as to when it is best to
perform instrument maintenance, calibration, quality control, performance
specifications, and staff training.
Of course, just because another shift may have fewer staff,
a limited test menu, and a different set of priorities, doesn’t mean that there
should be any less effort to ensure that the staff is properly trained on any
changes to the lab operation. The continued evolution of laboratory information
technology has made maintaining consistent record keeping among all shifts
easier to achieve, and monitor. But just because of these advances in
technology, we cannot overlook the need to constantly monitor staff competency,
especially for those who work alone, or nearly alone, on their shifts. On many
late shifts, there may be no supervisor on site, and there is the possibility
that the expected competency may not be maintained. Also, over time, each shift
develops its own culture, and in small ways, may individualize how some procedures
determinations of the type and variety of work to be done on any shift are made
based on how busy the staff is during their shift, and many labs choose to add
responsibilities rather than reduce staffing if the workload is unpredictable.
Many labs will have the night shift prepare and/or run the quality control
prior to the day staff coming in; or have the evening shift perform some of the
routine instrument maintenance. Any shift might check inventory. All these
determinations should be done through a realistic assessment of what can be
achieved in the way of routine work, in light of the priorities set for that
Through it all, regardless of what shift is involved,
efforts must be made to encourage a sense of community, trust, competency and
communication among all staff. If the lab staff is fragmented, or feels that
other shifts are treated in a better manner, this will definitely impact the
quality of work, as these issues can lead to distrust, miscommunication and
lack of teamwork.
Next Blog: Part II: Issues
The laboratory profession is changing so quickly that
sometimes it is hard to keep up. Not only are we impacted technologically with
new tests, new modes of communication and new venues for storing and retrieving
data, but we are seeing innovative use of advanced technologies for our routine
testing (hello, LC/MS?). In addition, our whole regulatory environment is
changing just as fast. Add in wholesale changes to the very structure of
organized medicine (goodbye private practice, hello Integrated Healthcare
Networks). All these changes m -- whether on a macro institutional level, or micro,
departmental level -- impact our laboratories. More than ever, we must respond
by utilizing effective personnel training. It is the key to adapting
successfully to our changing times.
An important precept to begin with is “training is not just
telling.” Effective training must be well organized and strategies utilized to
ensure that the trainee understands the why and the when, not just the how, of
performing a procedure or following a policy. This is true whether the
laboratory trainee is a medical technologist or a medical assistant. It’s a
human thing. You get better performance and increased retention when a person
understands the rationale for the steps that have to be followed and the
consequences of not following directions (both for the trainee and the
An effective trainer should present the material in a
sequential manner, articulating clearly all the steps involved. Effective
training is interactive, ensuring that your trainee indeed understands the points
you are making, and allows for questions and clarifications. An effective
trainer utilizes supplementary visual materials, whether printed or electronic,
and employs scenarios -- especially when training about new policies and
protocols. Effective training may also mix the practical with the didactic
“hands on,” alternating with instructional modes -- not only for new
instrumentation and kits, but when training about quality control and quality
In some cases, such as with new, lesser experienced
employees in highly complex situations, it may help to assign an experienced
tech to act as a mentor or buddy for a period of time.
The world of laboratory medicine is a complex place, and grows
more complicated daily. All of us need ongoing effective training if we are to
maintain the highest level of quality care in this new environment.
I have never seen a well-run laboratory, providing quality
patient service, that did not have complete up-to-date and well-organized
procedure manuals. But the implication
of “procedure manual” as a descriptive term is really incomplete. It is more
than just the step-by-step directions for performing a test. If that was all we needed, then the
manufacturer’s insert would be far more than sufficient. A complete procedure
manual must also include all operational steps from the pre-analytical patient
preparation and sample integrity to post-analytical reporting protocol for
each test and each test system.
Before putting together or updating your procedure
manual(s), you should be aware of what CLIA requires and/or the requirements
of your accrediting organization. These
requirements include (but are not limited to):
for specimen collection, rejection, labelling, processing and storage
step of the procedure (including calculations and interpretation of results)
and Calibration Verifications
Range and Reference Ranges
- Steps to
be taken if your test system is down, and you cannot perform testing as
and Trouble Shooting procedures
lab referral protocol
- How the lab
reports and stores results.
It is acceptable to utilize manufacturers’ inserts as the
basis for describing test procedures, but additional required information must
also be present.
But there is so much more. It is also helpful to consider the development and use of procedure
manuals as a separate organizational piece of the laboratory operation. Why? Because, in addition to the requirements
listed above, you must add in the personnel component:
of all new personnel and training of all personnel to new/revised procedures
- It is
the source of information regarding the communication of test results, panic
values, problems with specimen acquisition and operational problems to
internal (clinic/office) staff as well as external customers, including physicians, nurses and patients.
There is also an organizational component:
procedures should follow the same format and organization.
procedures must be approved, signed and dated by the laboratory director. This process must be repeated anytime the lab
- Annual reviews by the
laboratory director or by technical supervisors.
procedures must be retained a minimum of two years; signed and dated when discontinued
procedure manual must be readily accessible to personnel, preferably in their
Thus, when we discuss procedure manuals, we are really
discussing a key component of laboratory quality matrix, involving not just the
test procedures themselves, but personnel, organizational and regulatory requirements.
We all want our employees to succeed; that is, do well in their job, and do their job well. This requires more that the didactic aspect of training, and goes beyond competency assessment. This requires the skill and intuitive ability of the manager to understand and apply what motivates their employees to do as well as possible, as well as moving beyond defining boundaries when staff do not meet standards.
Essentially, motivating your employees effectively means understanding the human component of work. While we are Professionals with a capital P, we are also human; both positive and negative reinforcement are essential to get the best out of our staff.
The plain fact is that everybody watches everybody else; how their fellow staff are treated; wary of any hint of favoritism or unfairness. So, we need to go beyond implementing and using the important dictums of clear communication, transparency, and competency, to an awareness of not just what you are communicating, but how you communicate: the language that is used: the tone, the volume, your body language; your concern and your sincere involvement.
Once an employee has achieved competency, and is doing their job well, how often do they get recognized, praised, and rewarded? How often are they told that their efforts are not only saving lives, maintaining the quality and integrity of the laboratory and their organization, but serving as an example and inspiration for their fellow staff. How often do you instill pride in your staff?
If an employee is not performing to standards consistently, do you go beyond discipline? Beyond retraining? Do you try to find out if anything else is going on that is affecting their performance? This is not to say, you should go where you are not welcomed, but that you communicate your readiness to listen to your staff if they wish to talk to you about other issues?
How cognizant are you about the dynamics of your laboratory culture? Are you aware of the politics and power plays that go on, that may also affect performance? Do your supervisors share your philosophies of management? Do your employees feel comfortable having a private conversation with you about factors that may affect their work?
Good, solid, competent and experienced staff are to be valued and supported; when things go awry, you may have to look beyond training and competency assessment to the human factors that govern behavior, and by extension, performance.
The result is truly effective management; and this aligns with driving quality laboratory medicine.
By the way, who do you talk to?
We have all been in situations where we start our workday, and find the unexpected has happened, and that we cannot proceed as planned. Frustrating! From the viewpoint of a laboratory professional, this can include all those situations that prevent us from fulfilling our responsibilities to perform the testing ordered, and to report the test results in a timely manner.
These situations can include problems with:
- Instruments and Kits
- Quality Control / Reagents
- Inventory control ("what do you mean that we are out of test packs?")
- Personnel issues: sudden short staffing; performance errors; injuries on site.
- Ancillary system malfunctions such as refrigeration and incubation failures
- Computer / Laboratory Information Systems down
- Utilities out; leaky plumbing in the work area......anything!
The bottom line is that when these occur, the laboratory cannot deliver what is expected.
How do you handle this? After all, patient care is on the line; physicians are expecting test results in a timely manner; and there may be Stats among these orders. Without a plan, the credibility of the laboratory is at stake.
Whether the service interruption is a temporary delay measured in hours, or one that lasts for several days (or longer), the laboratory must have plans in place for dealing with service interruptions. These should include:
- Protocol for contacting the ordering physicians as soon as you know there will be a significant delay;
- Procedure for accurately informing the rest of the laboratory staff what has happened; so if they receive calls about the delayed work, they will have an informed response.
- Procedure to inform other departments in the facility if their work will be affected by these delays.
- Procedures for when and which specimens are to be retained or sent out for testing, depending on the length of the delay; and which laboratories to use for referred testing.
- Procedures for reporting test results if it is the information system that is not operating.
- Protocol for delays longer than one day.
Effectively planning for these situations, (as much as one can) will go a long way toward reducing stress for the staff, allowing them to focus on the tasks at hand; ensure proper communication to your clients, and preserve the credibility of the laboratory for its professionalism and quality.
By Irwin Rothenberg and Nancy Alers
In recent years, the concept of quality monitoring for laboratory testing has broadened beyond quality control focused on the analytic phase, to encompass the entire spectrum of the testing process from the physician's order through the final report. The impetus for this has been the realization that "up to 70% of all errors made in laboratory testing occurs during the pre-analytic phase, most of which arise from problems in patient preparation, sample collection, transportation, and preparation for analysis and storage."1
It is somewhat surprising to think that we are just now recognizing the importance of quality monitoring in the pre-analytic phase. However, unlike the analytic and post analytic phases, the processes of the pre-analytic phase often involve personnel that are not under the direct supervision of the laboratory, making it more challenging to control.
In house, laboratories must check the orders received for accuracy and completeness. One thing that is often overlooked is the importance of providing correct instructions to the patient for the self-collection of specimens. Patients may need to fast, observe specific guidelines such as the clean catch urine procedure, or collect samples over a 24 hour period prior to testing. Not following the correct instructions for sample collection has a direct impact on the quality of the samples received.
Next, the specimen labeling system and patient identification procedures must be in place and followed. It is imperative that labs utilize at least two unique identifiers for the correct identification of patients and their specimens.
For phlebotomy related tasks, it is recommended that labs assess the competency of all drawing staff, whether they are part of the laboratory or not. This includes nurses, respiratory therapists, medical assistants, anyone who draws blood or collects other specimens for laboratory testing. It is a good idea to track all rejected specimens, making sure to specify the reason for the rejection. For example, an increase in the number of samples rejected for insufficient quantity; for hemolysis; wrong vacutainer utilized, and so on, may point to a phlebotomy training issue that needs to be addressed.
Equally important is specimen handling and transport. A specimen collected properly is not going to be of use if it is not handled and transported correctly. Are specimens centrifuged and aliquoted within the specified time? How about refrigeration or freezer requirements if testing cannot be performed immediately?
Specimens received from outside collection sites pose a different risk for laboratories. Upon receipt of specimens, utilize a checklist to ensure that all the above requirements have been met prior to accepting the specimen. A specimen rejection policy is a must.
Your Quality Assessment plan should include evaluations of all phases of the testing process to ensure that errors detected have been addressed effectively.
- Quality Indicators To Detect Pre-Analytical Errors In Laboratory Testing. Available at: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428256. Last accessed July 28, 2014.
By Irwin Rothenberg and Nancy Alers
When a laboratory report must be corrected, and the amended results are sent to the ordering physician, questions may be raised regarding the quality of the laboratory work; the proper operation of the instrumentation involved; the competency of the testing staff, and whether the laboratory director or technical consultant/supervisor were fulfilling their oversight responsibilities.
While the report is the end result of the testing process, the reasons for the release of an erroneous report must be investigated, and the investigation may need to go all the way back to the pre-analytical phase, from test ordering to specimen collection and handling, through the analytical phase (instruments/reagents/staff competency), to the post-analytic phase that includes verification of the LIS (lab information system) for automated and manual results transfer.
Of course, erroneous reports may be due simply to a manual transcription error, initial verbal reports that were misunderstood; or a manual patient mix up. But as simple (though serious) as these are, the reasons these occurred at all still indicates a problem that may involve the core issues of oversight, training, communication and documentation.
There needs to be a formal laboratory policy and procedure for the correction of erroneous laboratory reports (after the correct results are obtained), and for sending amended reports as soon as possible.
These should include the following policies:
- Identify who to notify when the error is detected?
- Document all steps taken to correct the error;
- Provide the ordering physician with the corrected report;
- Retain the original report and the corrected report for future reference
- Perform a Root Cause Analysis if systemic issues are involved; if serious enough, perform an Incident Management study.
- Alternative contact plans if the laboratory is unable to reach the ordering physician or provider in a timely manner.
- Inclusion of this event as part of Quality Assessment; include follow up to ensure that the corrective actions taken were effective.
Following these policies and procedures will ensure a consistent quality laboratory response when erroneous reports are issued.
When we discuss the characteristics of a quality laboratory, we naturally look at those areas of the laboratory operation encompassed by CLIA/AO requirements, including Personnel training and Competency Assessment, Organization, Instrument Verification, Quality Assessment, Record Keeping and Documentation, Proficiency Testing, Facility safety, and so on.
However, one area that is often overlooked when assessing factors that contribute to quality laboratory work is the appropriateness and "do-ability" of the test menu. In fact, this is really such a fundamental aspect of the lab operation, that problems in this area affect everything else.
Whether you are planning a new, start-up lab operation, or performing a cost/benefit analysis of current testing, or thinking of purchasing a new or replacement instrument, you must do a realistic assessment of not only what you want to offer your patients, but what you can realistically offer your patients.
When your instrumentation/test menu creates problems with staffing, time management; work overload, and expiration of unused reagents; when quality control, calibration and maintenance requirements exceed test time for infrequently utilized instruments ... you've got problems!
Your decision making should first include a cost/benefit analysis:
- Instrument cost (purchase or lease?)
- Reagent cost (are you obligated to purchase reagents from a particular manufacturer?)
- Reagent life (expiration dates: days, weeks, months before/after opening packages)
- Storage requirements (buying a new refrigerator or freezer?)
- Calibration, maintenance frequency.
- Tests run singly or in batch mode?
- Comparison to reference laboratory charges and turn-around time
- Staffing requirements: number, training expenses; qualifications and experience beyond present staffing; continuing education.
- Proficiency testing
- Facility space, ventilation, electrical needs; hazardous disposal requirements
- Time and involvement of the lab director, and the technical consultant
- Document storage requirements/LIS capacity
- Adjusting the front office staffing to handle additional pre and post analytical paperwork and communications.
Of course, providing the highest level of service for your patients may justify costs associated with the above considerations, but you must right-size the instrumentation to meet the demand in terms of test volume capacity, variety of tests offered, operating times and staffing. Having a laboratory with excess capacity and operating requirements can ultimately bankrupt a practice. Investigate what instruments can meet your present needs, and for the near future, and be cost effective.
In today's world, when compensation for laboratory testing is constantly under pressure, right-sizing your lab means better financial health; better resource utilization, and ultimately, better service for your patients. This spells Quality!
Were you ever one of those techs that questioned the utility
of parallel testing? Ok, I admit it, me
too! I used to think that lot-to-lot verification, also referred to as
crossover studies or parallel testing, was a nuisance, but that is because I
didn’t fully understand it. Therefore, I get it when customers call me with
questions about this process. In fact, lot-to-lot verification is one of the
hot topics of the CQA line.
Simply put, parallel testing helps ensure the integrity of
the new lot before it is used. Parallel testing helps us assess: 1) the integrity
of the lot (kit, controls and reagents) and 2) lot performance or, in other
words, ensures that the recovered expected results are accurate. It is
essential to assess the integrity of the new lot before being used and to
ensure that there were no changes during shipment. This is particularly
important if there is any chance supplies were subjected to drastic climate
changes in transit.
While qualitative tests just need to have positive and negative
reactivity verified, quantitative assays need to be verified over a range of
values. Generally, five values are considered adequate when verifying a new lot
number.* Be sure to check the package insert and your accrediting agency’s
recommendations for specific requirements. Essentially, parallel testing, in
addition to being a regulatory or compliance requirement, is an exercise in
good laboratory practices. Here are a few tips when doing lot to lot
1. Check the lot
inventory to ensure expiration date of reagents, storage conditions and that
inventory levels are adequate to perform the crossover studies.
2. Assign the
lot to lot verification to a specific staff member or communicate to all
testing staff assigned to the bench, so as not to miss any runs. It is
recommended the verification is done over the span of a few days vs. all in one
3. Check your
accreditation agency standards and manufacturer’s instructions to determine the
number of data points or values needed.
procedure manual/package insert instructions to perform the verification.
qualitative tests, the laboratory must ensure positive and negative reactivity.
quantitative test, if the new lot results are within the manufacturer’s
specifications or the criteria established by the lab director, then the
verification was successful.
7. Make sure to
analyze the data and note any calculations needed. Remember, documentation is
laboratory director or designated person must review and evaluate the
verification and determine if it was acceptable or not.
9. If the
verification is not acceptable, be sure to perform a root cause analysis and
implement a corrective action plan.
Have you ever had a situation where the current lot runs out
before the new lot gets verified? How did you handle that?
*COLA Laboratory Accreditation Manual, April 2014
An ongoing concern among our laboratories is how to ensure
that bedside or remote laboratory testing is of the same quality as that performed in-house.
Technological advances have resulted in an explosion in the number of tests that can be
performed outside the laboratory setting; locations include the operating
room, the nursing station, bedside, and nursing homes to name a few. More than ever, the laboratory must be proactive in monitoring this if
quality care is to be maintained. This
means that all point-of-care testing (POCT) personnel must be properly trained
(with the training documented) and have
their competency periodically assessed, even if all of their testing is waived. All instruments involved should be used in
accordance with manufacturer’s requirements with quality control, calibration and maintenance records monitored; and
test results verified to accuracy and (if the patient has been previously
tested) consistent with a patient’s history. Don’t forget to monitor reagent storage and handling as well. Utilization of split sampling and proficiency
testing is also recommended for monitoring quality.
Many laboratories, mindful that POCT may be performed
by non-laboratory staff, often have a staff tech responsible for monitoring
this testing, acting as both a liaison to
the laboratory as well as a technical resource for the POCT staff. This is an important responsibility, as
feedback from the field to the laboratory is needed to identify potential
communication problems, complaints and the needs of both patients and staff.
In this new era of the Affordable Care Act and PCMH, the
same standards now apply to POCT as to in-house laboratories: the need
for efficient test utilization, the
importance of interfacing remote test
results with all laboratory testing on that patient and ensuring that all healthcare providers have the same access to these
results as they would for in-house testing. New generations of POCT instruments have interfacing capabilities.
There is even talk of using smart phone technology for
performing certain tests (such as reading indicator strips) and interfacing
these results with the patient database. I can almost see the vision of the
original Startrek infirmary where Dr.
McCoy diagnosed his patients with the use of a Medical Tricorder.
The bottom line is that there should be no difference in the
quality of patient care provided by the laboratory, whether performed within
the confines of the laboratory itself or anywhere else. Ultimate
responsibility lies with the laboratory administration and staff.
Recently, CRI had a webinar, titled “Effective Laboratory
Utilization: New Health Care Models,” and somehow the word utilization made me think of STATs. It made me remember the years
when I was right out of lab school and was often stressed out every time a STAT
was dropped off in the lab. For this
week, let’s talk about the lab’s responsibility in ensuring the correct
utilization of STATs, as well as strategies to help your lab meet the
turnaround time requested.
When I was a brand new lab tech, I remember receiving an
increasing number of STATs requested 15-20 minutes prior to shutting down for
the day. It was quite obvious what the emergency was -- this was not only poor
test priority utilization, because some of those tests could very well have
been ordered as routine and ran the next day, but it added to the level of
stress already present. In retrospect, this situation could have been better
1) Assessing if the right priority was selected, setting limits if it wasn’t,
2) Having a strategy to help the lab meet the request.
If the test priority is not a true STAT and can be ordered
as routine, or ASAP, then it is the lab’s responsibility to ask questions and
make sure the right priority for the test has been ordered. If the priority is
not the correct one, the lab has the right to change the priority to manage the
For true STAT requests, the recommendation is to have a
process to incorporate them into the workload. Labs use different ways to track
STAT specimens from pre-analytic to post-analytic phase. Some of the methods
used are colored stickers, which make it easier to locate/track specimens; this
can also be done by having a designated STAT person, or a stop watch or other
time tracking device setup when the specimen is first received. If the lab is a
sophisticated one, it may even have a screen with the different priorities
highlighted and how much time is left, very much like a flight screen at an
Delivering the right result is as important as delivering
the right result at the right time! In accomplishing this, labs have
opportunities to assess if the correct priority was indeed selected to help
manage the workload. It is also essential for labs to have a strategy in place
to incorporate and track STATs from the pre-analytic to post-analytic phase to
ensure test results are reported out on time.
What are some of the ways STATs are handled in your
laboratory? Please share!
One of the key activities of a laboratory is maintaining
complete and comprehensive documentation of all activities carried out. Every
step of the testing process -- from requisitioning tests; to specimen
acquisition, labeling, handling, and storage; to specimen testing; to reporting
test results -- must be documented. In addition, documentation is a key
activity of laboratory management from approvals of policies and procedures to
personnel issues from training and competency assessment; to hiring and disciplinary
activities. We must also include facilities issues as well, from maintaining
temperature records; to inventory control We must also not forget maintenance,
calibration and performance specification records, among other aspects of the
How we document has changed more radically than what we
document. Remember all the excitement of beginning the new Millennium? We could
not have imagined how rapidly these changes would actually occur! A whole new
vocabulary has emerged: EHR, EMR, LIS, ACO, PCMH, PCLE -- not to mention IM,
Not only have we moved from paper to electronic record
keeping, but we have moved data input, access and retrieval from desktops to
laptops to smart phones. We are not just referring to technical and personnel
record keeping -- this includes patient (test) records (still quaintly referred
to as Charts) as well. But the most radical innovation of all is the tremendous
increase in capacity for interconnectedness of all databases. It is now
worldwide. Testing can be performed by laboratories half a world away with results
instantly transmitted. Instruments can be repaired remotely; personnel training
can be achieved via webinars; and lab directors qualified via on-line training.
Imagine potentially any records generated by your
laboratory, from technical records (quality control, maintenance, calibrations;
operational histories including corrective actions; all patient test results),
to personnel records (yes, really!) to operational records (laboratory finances,
coding used, organization), all have the potential to be shared worldwide both
for good purposes as well as for harm.
These technological changes, when used to enhance the
quality of patient care, are nothing short of revolutionary. The development of
Accountable Care Organizations (ACO) and the concepts of the Patient Centered
Medical Home (PCMH)as well as Patient Centered Laboratory Excellence (PCLE)
could not have come about without the ability to have instant world-wide
communication of patient data. But behind that, from a laboratory perspective,
is the same growth in capacity. This enhances the quality of laboratory work
done by sharing all manner of operational information from guaranteeing the
qualifications of all testing personnel to proximate or remote oversight of
instrument operation, supply inventory and quality assessments.
What an age we live in!
In part II of this blog, we will touch on Calibration and
Quality Assurance. These two areas are among the most common areas of
deficiencies and also tend to be frequently cited.
Calibration: I get it. Out of sight, out of mind, right?
Calibration being missed is among the most common citations for laboratory
deficiencies. Some instruments have safety features that prevent you from
running patient samples if calibration needs to be performed. Others do not. If
your instrument allows you to run samples even if calibration is out, beware!
One of my recommendations is to create some sort of alert or calendar to ensure
that calibration is done on time. Such an alert can be setup using the lab’s
email system or simply posting a notice by the instrument. The idea is to
create some sort of reminder to ensure that it is not missed. It is important
to keep all calibration documentation together, including instrument tapes.
Also, be sure to evaluate the data and document if the calibration was found to
be acceptable or not.
Another issue with calibration is that it is often confused
with calibration verification. These are two different processes. Calibration
verification is required for non-waived tests (moderate and high complexity) to
ensure that the instrument is accurately measuring values of known
concentration throughout the reportable range. So, while calibration sets or
adjusts the instrument readout, calibration verification checks to ensure the
instrument is recovering the right values. There are instances where
calibration and calibration verification will be due at different times in
which a reminder for both must be setup in order to prevent issues.
Last but not least, we have… drumroll please….
Quality Assurance (QA): this is the one area I spend most of
my time on as a Quality Advisor. One issue laboratories face is that QA can be
a very broad topic and a task that is easy to forget when worried about the day
to day activities. What I often tell labs is not to take QA for granted, QA is
your friend! A good quality assurance plan is an internal quality improvement
tool that can help detect issues labs may not be aware exist, for example
calibration not being performed on time. Something I often clarify for labs is
that a good quality assurance review looks at not only what’s wrong in the lab
or known areas of deficiencies (complaints, rejected specimens, incorrect
results reported out, etc.), but ALL AREAS. The goal is to select elements of
the entire testing process (pre, analytic, post-analytic) to assess the quality
of lab operations and help detect areas that may need improvement.
And that concludes my Top 5 deficiencies for Laboratories.
How did you do? What are some other areas you would list here? Stay tuned for
my next blog titled: Not another STAT, please!
I know that this is not the first time that I have discussed
competency assessment on this blog site, but I continue to find (as a quality
advisor) a lack of knowledge about changes
to the required processes; who is
qualified to perform these and when, and
the reasons why these assessments are so important. More and more, I’ve seen that as technological
change accelerates, not only for how we test, but how we communicate these
results and store data, that the old ways of performing routine annual
assessments are not sufficient to guarantee the continuous quality that we all
We know by now, that your CLIA qualified technical
consultant / supervisor has overall responsibility for the training and
competency of the staff, but that there are many situations, such as in Point
of Care (POC) and Physician Office labs (POLs) where this responsibility is
carried out through the training of on-site competent individuals who then
train the testing staff. But, I
reiterate, that the technical consultant /supervisor should always be
monitoring this training and competency assessment to ensure all steps are
followed and assessments are accurate.
Since change, represented by new instrumentation, new LIS,
new kits, and new tests is an on-going process, assessing competency must go
beyond set evaluation schedules arranged before these changes occurred. Continuous quality is derived from , and
dependent upon, continuous training, continuous feedback, and continuous
competency assessment. Feedback from
patients, physicians, and staff provide important indicators of whether quality
standards are being met.
The most important recent change is the mandate from CLIA
that competency assessment must include (where and whenever relevant to the
particular process under study) the following six components:
of routine patient test performance;
monitoring and recording of test results; review of intermediate test
results and worksheets; direct
observation of instrument maintenance; blind sample testing (such as
proficiency testing); and problem solving skills.
Competency assessment is not only performed in response to
changes going on in the lab, but must also be periodically performed for
routine work as well; you cannot assume
that once competent , always competent; personnel may experience changes to competency
for any number of reasons, such as changes in work assignments. Never assume that competency is a constant
for any individual.
Think of competency assessment as the backbone of lab
quality; and the backbone runs the length of the lab operations both in terms
of time and structure.