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DNP Discussions

DNP Graduates: Agents of Social Change
January 18, 2017 10:31 AM by Rebecca Bates

As we prepare for a new POTUS, many of us are considering the imminent social changes that directly impact our patients and our profession. In September, we started precepting MSW students in addition to NP and CNS students in our free clinic. The students started with providing SBIRT screening and have expanded, in the past five months, to helping patients navigate the health and social welfare system. Our clinics only provide primary care services to people who live <200% FPL and have no insurance. Consequently, referrals to specialists and surgical consults are challenging and many have barriers to healthy living, such as housing and food insecurity, low income, serious mental illness, recent immigration or language other than English as a first language. As we seek to help patients optimize their health and wellness, I have realized the importance of my competency in all of the DNP Essentials to create a new system of care.

Imagine if everyone had access to appropriate and affordable healthcare at a time and place of their choosing.

This is my goal. Last month, in this column, I considered how the DNP Essentials help achieve this goal. What if we expand this consideration to our interprofessional social work colleagues?  I have learned that social work can follow at least two different tracks (similar to nursing): a clinical or an administrative track. The administrative track is called "social change," and the students who choose this track would be more interested in leading a non-profit organization than counseling individual clients. Many of their nine competencies mirror our eight DNP Essentials.

They are expected to be competent in:

  1. Ethical and professional behaviors
  2. Engage diversity and difference in practice
  3. Advance human rights and social, economic, and environmental justice
  4. Engage in practice informed research and research-informed practice
  5. Engage in policy practice
  6. Engage with individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities
  7. Assess individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities
  8. Intervene with individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities
  9. Evaluate practice with individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities

The power of interprofessional education and practice is amazing!  When we lead by example through engaging our colleagues to truly care for individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities, our ability to deliver high quality, cost-effective, evidence-based care is magnified. Our individual patients, families, and communities benefit directly and indirectly through a healthier population. This translates into a healthier economy, improved economic and social stability, and improved quality of life.

As DNP graduates, we are healthcare leaders responsible for shaping the course of healthcare. What better time to showcase and demonstrate our competencies, and those of our interprofessional colleagues, than when our country is going through a major social change with healthcare at the forefront of the discussion?

How will you voice your opinions? Will you have a seat at the table in these assessments, planning, interventions, and evaluations? If we do not speak up for our patients, our profession, and ourselves, someone else will. I urge each of you to be the healthcare leader you were educated and trained to be. We must all practice to the full extent of our education and training and embrace our scope of practice to transform healthcare and social change. Join me!

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DNPs Giving Back
December 22, 2016 10:01 AM by Rebecca Bates

As 2016 draws to a close and I finish evaluating my students' progress in each of the DNP Essentials, I have been thinking about how to continue pushing myself also. For me, completing the DNP degree was a transformative experience. I started the DNP program with a goal of earning a doctorate so I could teach in a graduate program. I finished the DNP program with a vision of transforming healthcare, particularly for the underserved.

I am currently working for two free clinics. One serves a mostly immigrant population from northern Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. The other is a bridge care program started by NPs at a local university with a goal of getting more underserved individuals into the healthcare system. In both of these clinics, we struggle with providing high-quality, patient-centered healthcare for people with no insurance and limited resources. Many of our patients do not speak English. This is a huge barrier when trying to navigate a healthcare system. Many have not had the opportunity to complete basic education and left school after 5th grade. Each of these clinics has a list of programs and resources to which we can refer them and through which help individuals apply for care. However, we need to break down silos and start truly working together for the benefit of the individual.

In the past week, I have attended two different local conferences. One was sponsored by the local health department to discuss local grant money available to non-profits serving county residents. The other was at the university that sponsors the bridge care program to discuss SBIRT implementation in our clinics, as well as with community partners. I should mention that the university has a SAMHSA grant for SBIRT. The discussion and connections developing as a result of each of these conferences has the potential to create new models of care that reduce barriers to care for the underserved.

Part of my graduate education, as I am sure is true for many of us, included learning about community oriented primary care (COPC). In my location, each of our three counties has completed a community assessment and set priorities for the next few years. Using this information as a starting point and with intentional dialogue and work groups from many different service providers and stakeholders (most importantly our community members) would help us create a COPC model to deliver high-quality, cost-effective healthcare and social services particularly to the most vulnerable in our communities.

As we all contemplate the potential dissolution of the ACA and how we will provide healthcare services in a changing political and reimbursement landscape, we need to consider new possibilities. What if we all started a discussion of COPC in our communities or built on existing models that work to improve coordination of healthcare and social services necessary to create a healthy community? We know that healthy communities are productive and economically stable. This will create less poverty, less crime, and more social connection in addition to healthier individuals and families.

How are you using the DNP Essentials to drive your practice and improve healthcare? I challenge each of you to revisit the DNP Essentials and consider how you can improve your practice or community using these as a guide. Where is the gap in care or care delivery that you can impact? DNP graduates have the knowledge, skills, and ability to change the world. What will you do?

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The Changing Seasons
November 21, 2016 10:59 AM by Rebecca Bates

To every thing there is a season...

By the time you read this, we will have a new President-elect of the United States. At this time of year, many of us are preparing for a new legislative season not only in Congress but also in our state legislatures. As a DNP, I believe this is a perfect time to leverage our position as leaders in healthcare.  We now have 21 states plus DC with full practice authority for NPs. But all nurses have potential barriers to practicing to the full extent of our education and training. As we seek to change healthcare through innovation and high-quality, cost-effective care, DNPs  (APRNs and nurse executives) have the knowledge, skills, and ability to design, implement, and evaluate interventions that directly affect patient outcomes.

One of the most important ways we can create change is through partnerships, specifically through academic-community partnerships that leverage the resources of all partners. For example, colleges and universities have students who need projects and need to complete hours toward DNP degree Essentials or other degrees. Universities also have IRBs to review and approve proposed research as well as multiple departments that could provide valuable support for statistics, mapping, and intra-disciplinary collaboration. Community partners can provide healthcare settings for students and may have projects or studies that need to be completed for grant funding.

Here are some examples of how this is working in my free clinic. I work part-time in a free clinic and work part-time for a large university. I currently have two DNP students completing their DNP projects at the clinic. One is doing a diabetes outcomes project, and the other is doing a cultural competency project. I should tell you that my free clinic serves a largely immigrant population from northern Africa and the middle-east. But, we care for anyone who lives <200% FPL and has no health insurance and is without residency restrictions. Therefore, these projects are essential to providing improved care for this population and will hopefully demonstrate improved patient outcomes. 

I have another DNP student who is helping to get our telehealth program up and running. I have two MSW (social work) students who provide care navigation, SBIRT, and psychosocial screening for our patients. The goal is to be able to target the patients who are at higher risk for poor outcomes. We will do this through a "hot spot" model. The identified patients will be offered home visits with telehealth support during these visits. The community health team (FNP and MSW students) will take the telehealth enabled tablet or computer into patients' homes and complete the appropriate screenings, review current medications, assess for psychosocial needs, and then utilize telehealth for a visit with the primary care provider for medication management and education.

Through academic-community partnerships, my patients have access to high-quality, cost-effective care that should improve outcomes (based on the current literatures). The target patients are part of the 5% who use 50% of the healthcare dollars. Simple high-touch interventions are able to reduce high-cost utilization of emergency rooms and adverse events related to uncontrolled chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Our next step will be to complete a study to see if our interventions are successful. If so, we will approach our local hospital systems about providing affordable labs and radiology for our patients as we will be reducing high-cost ED visits our patients could not afford to pay for anyway.

Another idea is to write prescriptions for food, housing, or clothing assistance for patients who need these resources. An agreement with local social service resources would streamline the social service access for our patients through a universal screening system. For example, if a patient qualifies for our clinic, they would be qualified for the social services referral if needed. This would reduce the barriers of language and literacy challenges our patients face in accessing these services.

I realize many of these projects seem overwhelming and possibly unrealistic. However, they are working in my clinic and in many other communities around the country. When we create navigable community partnerships that focus on the patient and reduce the silos we have worked in for so long, our patients will have better outcomes, improved financial stability, be productive workforce participants, and cost our healthcare system less money.

As you read this blog, I urge you to consider the barriers to education, care, and cost in your workplace that you could change. Use this seaon of change to create partnerships and address barriers in your career. The DNP Essentials prepare us to be healthcare leaders. How will you lead?

Be Well!

- Rebecca

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Report on the 9th National Doctors of Nursing Practice Conference
October 18, 2016 8:52 AM by Rebecca Bates

I have had a most awesome week! The 9th National Doctors of Nursing Practice Conference in Baltimore, held October 5-7, just concluded, and I was in attendance. The theme "Transforming Healthcare Through Collaboration" perfectly describes what DNPs are doing every day. In fact, the opening presentation was titled "DNP: Value and Impact" and was presented by Dr. Mary Terhaar. We are doing amazing things using our DNP Essentials. However, we need to quantify our value and impact.

During the first breakout session, my colleagues, Dr. Rebecca Sutter and Dr. Caroline Sutter, and I presented "Developing New Providers: Academic-Community Inter-professional Partnerships." Our unique answer to community needs was adding nurse-managed primary care clinics to areas where access to care is most needed. This would help patients access the healthcare system while nurses navigate them into a permanent medical home. Our model provided faculty practice sites and clinical training sites for BSN, MSN, DNP, and PhD students, as well as inter-professional education and practice with psychology, social work, health administration, nutrition, and pharmacy.

During 3 years of practice, our clinic has served over 5,000 unique patients during 7,000 patient visits, saving our community over $90,000 per month in healthcare costs. Other sessions also covered inter-professional collaboration with multiple universities, communication, DNP projects and academic-practice partnerships, and complex care management.

Poster presentations were equally informative. Dr. Christina van Hilst discussed hot spotting to meet healthcare delivery needs of complex patients. Dr. Loretta Vece shared success with integrating oral health into primary care delivered to underserved populations in nurse-managed clinics. This was all just the first day!

Dr. Karen Kesten (from AACN) started off the next morning discussing "Implementation of DNP Task Force Recommendations-How is it going?" Are you familiar with these recommendations? They affect DNP graduates, DNP students, and DNP programs, and they help us articulate and study the value and impact of the DNP degree.

The next panel discussion appropriately explained nursing organization collaboration to move our profession forward and assist with DNP advocacy. Five amazing nurses shared how they were leading change and advancing health in their organizations.

I want to highlight one poster session, in particular, because I think it is just excellent: Dr. Reagan Thompson at UVA created and evaluated the use of lay health promoters or outreach CNAs to pre-screen migrant farm workers so healthcare providers could target the highest risk in the population they were scheduled to see the next week. It worked!

The final day of the conference started with a dynamic plenary session about simulation-enhanced interprofessional education. We need to start thinking about how we are utilizing interprofessional practice and how we can do this better and teach new nurses at all levels.

Next, Dr. Williams discussed a successful example of academic practice partnerships in a healthcare system to improve nursing workforce development and support APRN practice and DNP education. This initiative also provides clinical sites for students and faculty practice sites all while creating a culture that has improved nurse retention.

The last session I attended was by Dr. Clingerman: "Leading high performance collaboration using polarity thinking." The goal presented was to prevent downsides using polarity-thinking managing differences in order to find common ground to improve outcomes. This is something we can all learn and use no matter our role.

I always love attending the national DNP conference as it is a great way to network, meet new people, catch up with distant colleagues, and learn so much more about what DNPs are doing to transform healthcare. I hope this gives you some ideas about what you could do in your role using your DNP degree.

Collaborating, innovating, and approaching challenges with a new perspective to improve outcomes is the foundation of the DNP degree. We all have the ability to improve health and optimize the well-being of our patients, our profession, and our community.

What is your contribution?

 The 10th National Doctors of Nursing Practice Conference will be held next year in New Orleans. Dates are still to be decided. Learn more about attending and presenting here.

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The DNP Essentials
September 16, 2016 8:45 AM by Rebecca Bates

At the start of this school year, I am contemplating the DNP Essentials. As a DNP, how are you using the knowledge and skills acquired through your DNP coursework to impact healthcare outcomes? When was the last time you read the DNP Essentials and thought about how the DNP Essentials can provide a framework for your professional growth and development?

I am working with a number of students this fall who are in the final year of their DNP program and are working on their DNP projects. (Note: We need a different word for this, but "project" it is for now.) These projects will directly impact the health of the patients, improve outcomes and create another service our free clinic is able to provide to improve access to care for some of the most vulnerable in our community. As faculty or as preceptors, we all have the ability to help guide our DNP students and new graduates into roles and jobs that use all of the DNP Essentials.

In my free clinic, we recently acquired Telehealth through a grant project. We will use this technology not only to connect our patients with specialty providers to improve access to care, but we will also use it as a way to connect our patients to primary care. One of the ways to reduce healthcare costs is prevention and expert management of chronic diseases through new models of care. Utilizing Telehealth to "hot spot" patients who are potentially high utilizers of expensive services, such as the ED, directly improves the health of the patient and family and keeps healthcare costs down. It is more cost-effective to send a nurse (or DNP student) into a patient's home with a Telehealth enabled tablet (HIPAA compliant and encrypted) to facilitate a Telehealth visit than it is for this patient to miss multiple appointments because of lack of transportation or other barrier and then end up in the ED.  

By developing a new model of care for this specific patient population, the students are learning to use the knowledge and skills they have acquired through competency in the DNP Essentials. These scientific underpinnings for practice (DNP Essential I), organizational and systems thinking (DNP Essential II), information systems/technology (DNP Essential IV), interprofessional collaboration to improve healthcare outcomes (DNP Essential VI), clinical prevention and population health (DNP Essential VII), and advanced nursing practice (DNP Essential VIII) all focus on the patient and improving outcomes. One of my students will be working on this project. Data, analysis and dissemination of findings will address clinical scholarship for EBP (DNP Essential III) and health policy (DNP Essential V).

As you contemplate your reasons for starting your DNP journey or for completing your DNP degree, I urge you to return to the DNP Essentials as your guiding framework. As a DNP graduate, I have moved into roles I never dreamed of years ago. I recently looked at an assignment I completed for school a few years ago. It was one of those "Where do you see yourself in 10 years?" type assignments. My thesis was "I will change the world." Using the knowledge, skills and abilities I gained through completion of my DNP degree, I am changing to world. Will you join me?

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Full Practice Authority
August 12, 2016 8:34 AM by Rebecca Bates
How much do you know about full practice authority (FPA)? As NPs, we have state and federal laws and regulations that govern our practice. As we prepare for fall elections and legislative sessions in the new year, we all need to consider our ability to practice to the full extent of our education and training.

I live in Virginia. If you look at the AANP State Practice Environment map (AANP, 2016), Virginia is a red state, meaning we have restricted practice. Twenty-one states and DC have granted NPs FPA. There are only 12 states that are red. In Virginia, NP practice is regulated by the joint boards of the Board of Medicine and the Board of Nursing. We must practice under a written collaborative agreement with a physician that acknowledges the physician is the lead of any patient care team: "‘[C]ollaboration' and supervision requirements establish physicians as gatekeepers who control APRNs' independent access to the market," (FTC, 2014, p. 29). There is no other profession that is regulated by another profession. Further, we have a joint board. FPA means we should be regulated and licensed under the exclusive authority of the Board of Nursing.

As we work on grassroots advocacy, we need to ensure a consistent message to our legislators, patients and colleagues. We need to gather momentum from grassroots NP support as well as legislative support before proposing additional legislation. If we take the time to develop a solid base of support, our legislative efforts will be more rewarding. A consistent message signifies unity within our profession and clarifies our argument.

Here is my proposed elevator speech about FPA:

"As an NP, I am a board certified healthcare provider. FPA means I am allowed to practice to the full extent of my education and training under the exclusive licensure authority of the Board of Nursing."

Do you know what color your state is? How does restricted practice affect your ability to care for patients? Are you involved in your professional organization and advocating for FPA?

I challenge each of you to use the DNP essentials (organization/systems leadership, healthcare policy for advocacy, information systems/technology to improve and transform healthcare, and clinical scholarship and analytical methods for EBP [AACN, 2006]) as an advocate for FPA to be a leader in improving healthcare outcomes.

 

References:

American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP). (2016). State practice environment. Retrieved from https://www.aanp.org/legislation-regulation/state-legislation/state-practice-environment

American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN). (2006). The essentials of doctoral education for advanced nursing practice. Retrieved from http://www.aacn.nche.edu/publications/position/dnpessentials.pdf

Federal Trade Commission. (2014). Policy perspectives: Competition and the regulation of advanced practice nurses. Retrieved from https://www.ftc.gov/system/files/documents/reports/policy-perspectives-competition-regulation-advanced-practice-nurses/140307aprnpolicypaper.pdf
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The DNP's Role in Healthcare Reform
July 15, 2016 8:35 AM by Rebecca Bates
Have you thought about how you're using your DNP in your practice? As I write this, a small group of us from my DNP graduating class are finalizing our first state DNP conference. We recognized that we have a national organization, Doctors of Nursing Practice, but our state had no such networking organization. Over the past year, we have created an association and planned our first conference, which will focus on health policy, leadership and disruptive innovations. We have speakers who are leaders in all of these areas who will share their knowledge and experience. The plan is to have special interest groups (SIGs) develop from these focus areas so we can continue exploring how DNPs influence healthcare in our state and our nation.

This planning committee includes two faculty members from our program (who were the visionaries), as well as nurse executives and CRNA, NP and CNS practitioners. By utilizing our various professional networks and knowledge, we believe this DNP association has the power to stimulate and support all DNPs to actively engage all of the AACN DNP Essentials in our practice areas.

As an FNP, learning from other DNPs who have created new models of care, utilize disruptive technologies and improve population health through scholarship, systems leadership, health policy advocacy and interprofessional collaboration has greatly enhanced my practice. Continuing to explore innovative care delivery models to improve outcomes for the uninsured and poor in my free clinics enables me to provide high-quality, cost-effective interventions that directly improve the health of my patients and their families. 

The rising cost of healthcare is unsustainable. Individuals are facing higher deductibles in their insurance plans and often avoid accessing healthcare services, even when insured, because of these deductibles. I challenge each of us to re-examine the DNP Essentials to reach out to other DNPs and colleagues in order to explore new models of care delivery providing more access to services with lower cost and improved outcomes. 

As nurses, we have the power, knowledge and experience to change healthcare. What will be your role in healthcare reform in your workplace, community, state and country?

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The Awareness Wheel
May 18, 2016 9:21 AM by Rebecca Bates

As I reflect over the past legislative session and more recently over my past week as I met with each of my bosses and collaborators as well as legislators and other elected officials, I thought I would share a helpful communication tool I learned while completing my DNP.

As we learned about organizational development and self-reflection on our behavioral tendencies, we also learned strategies for communication, especially where there is a conflict or hot button issue.

One of my jobs is in a Free Clinic. This is not a Federally Qualified Healthcare Center, but it is a safety net clinic. We only see people who have no health insurance and live <200% FPL. We have a single major donor and a few very small additional donors.  

During the week, I am the only provider and I have an office manager. Between the two of us, we complete eligibility screening, provide primary care services for patients, order medications, write referrals, reach out to community partners, look for other funding sources such as grants, provide patient navigation, and respond to our patients' questions and concerns.

I have been using the Awareness Wheel as a way to help articulate my concerns and requests in a non-judgmental manner to facilitate true communication rather than conflict. If you are not familiar with this tool, there are many variations. I prefer the, ‘Facts,' ‘I Feel,' ‘I Imagine,' and ‘I Request' model.  Below, I will demonstrate how it may be used.

Facts: The Free Clinic is a safety net clinic providing coordinated healthcare services, through a network of community partners, to those who have no other access to healthcare. Currently, our network is very small and we are unable to meet many of the needs of the patients we serve. Everyday, the office manager and I work hard to care for patients with our very limited resources.

I Imagine: I imagine that the Board of Directors and the Clinical Operations Committee shares the clinic vision and want to do everything possible to fulfill this vision and beyond.

I Feel: I feel that my ideas for creating a sustainable comprehensive network of community partners and reaching out to the wider community in which the clinic is located are not clearly heard.

I Want: I want to be a part of building the foundation of the Free Clinic to create sustainable partnerships throughout northern Virginia. I want all of us to diligently reach out to all community partners who would help us to provide comprehensive healthcare services for our patients. I want to develop partnerships with Universities and larger healthcare organizations to be able to create new models of healthcare that keep the patient at the center of everything we do at the Free Clinic.

I hope you find this tool useful as you communicate with your colleagues, collaborators, partners and legislators. It has worked well for me!

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A DNP’s Role in Health Policy Efforts
April 6, 2016 8:38 AM by Rebecca Bates
In Virginia, our Legislative session ended two weeks ago. We have made some subtle progress in our move to full practice authority, but we still have many challenges. Our task is now to regroup and to plan a path forward in preparation for the next legislative session.

Nurses at all levels should be prepared to engage in healthcare policy and advocacy.1 However, nursing is under-represented in our political landscape. There are currently only six nurses elected to Congress,2 but 20 physicians currently serve in Congress.3 There are more than 2.7 million registered nurses working in the United States4 and 894,000 physicians.5

With the advent of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, 16 million Americans have gained healthcare coverage.6 This has created a greater need for healthcare leaders with the knowledge, skills and abilities to not only provide healthcare for additional individuals, but to ensure that healthcare policies address the population health needs and cost as well as the patient experience. DNPs are perfectly poised to be health policy leaders. But how is that achieved?

First, we must all be familiar with the basic political structure. Remember the Executive, Judicial and Legislative Branches of government you probably first learned in elementary school? We will focus on the Legislative Branch for this discussion. Recognizing your elected officials and having a basic understanding of the legislative process is the first step in understanding health policy and being an effective advocate. Each state has a website dedicated to the legislative branch where you can look up your legislators if you do not know their names or contact information. For our Congress, simply go to: House.gov and Senate.gov. Each has a link to find your Representative or Senator.

Second, the DNP needs to be able to identify opportunities to assess, design, evaluate and implement health policy based on the current healthcare and legislative landscape. Effective and politically competent advocacy efforts will result in the greatest improvement in healthcare delivery and nursing's role in healthcare redesign. Grassroots advocacy can be a very effective way to identify and create a politically active base that has the power to inform and influence health policy.

Finally, identifying experiential learning opportunities for the nurse to actively engage in healthcare policy, politics and advocacy is essential to position the nurses as leaders in healthcare reform and improved patient outcomes. As DNPs, we can be leaders in completing Health Policy Fellowships, actively seeking opportunities to gain a seat at the table through appointments to Governor's task forces and coalitions, and continuing to be politically aware through participation in advocacy efforts in our state and national organizations. Mentoring nurses new to advocacy can be another easy way to gather a small group of people to work together for a common goal. 

Nurses are in every healthcare setting and are integral to healthcare delivery and outcomes. Empowering the nurse advocate to assess, plan, implement and evaluate healthcare policy will improve the Triple Aim7 and improve access to care to reduce health disparities. All nurses should be ready "to participate as a nursing professional in political processes and grassroots legislative efforts to influence healthcare policy."1

References

1. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice. http://www.aacn.nche.edu/education-resources/BaccEssentials08.pdf

2. American Nurses Association. Nurses Currently Serving in Congress. http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/Policy-Advocacy/Federal/Nurses-in-Congress

3. American Medical Association. Advocacy with Congress. http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/advocacy/federal/advocacy-with-congress.page?

4. Kaiser Family Foundation. Total Number of Professionally Active Nurses. http://kff.org/other/state-indicator/total-registered-nurses/

5. Kaiser Family Foundation. Total Professionally Active Physicians. http://kff.org/other/state-indicator/total-active-physicians/

6. The White House. At a Glance. https://www.whitehouse.gov/healthreform

7. Institute for Healthcare Improvement. IHI Triple Aim Initiative. http://www.ihi.org/engage/initiatives/TripleAim/Pages/default.aspx

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Finding Your Passion
March 9, 2016 10:12 AM by Rebecca Bates

Have you ever wanted to be part of something bigger than yourself? Have you ever dreamed of changing the world? Advocating for health policy that directly affects the health of individuals and communities as well as our profession is one of the easiest and most important ways to do this.

Earlier this week, I spent a day advocating on Capitol Hill. I met with the staff of my senators and representative in Congress with the United Nations Foundation initiative called Shot@Life. Through this initiative, over 150 individuals from more than 30 states advocated for continued funding from the U.S. government to support immunization efforts throughout the world. Over the past five years, Shot@Life has advocated for government funding and President Obama has pledged one billion dollars for these efforts. This is less than 1% of our total Federal budget; our total military budget is $585 Billion. Global health and immunizations in particular, are not only a matter of "doing the right thing." Global health support helps to protect our nation. 

As our society becomes more transient and global with world wide travel becoming more common, affordable, and easy, disease transmission can be just a plane ride away. I live in the DC Metro area where we have some of the busiest airports in the country. This threat directly affects my family, community, and patient population. When the Ebola outbreak happened in Nigeria, community health stations that were created for immunization and other public health efforts were able to be efficiently converted to centers to evaluate and treat individuals who may have been exposed to Ebola. This helped to prevent a serious epidemic in Nigeria.

As a primary care provider, I recognize that immunizations are one of the most important public health interventions of the past century. Diseases such as polio, that are endemic in only two countries right now (Pakistan and Afghanistan) could make a resurgence, if immunization efforts are not supported. Despite the 99.9% decrease in polio cases in the past 30 years, polio continues to be a threat to the entire world. Imagine living in a world that is free of polio. Complications from diarrheal disease kill more children under the age of five worldwide than any other disease. We have a safe vaccine to combat rotavirus, but it is only effective if it can get to the children who need it most; those living in developing countries who often lack the benefit of adequate medical care. Four hundred children die each day from measles, a disease the U.S. had eradicated from our borders by the year 2000. However, in the past two years, with a measles outbreak in an Amish community in Ohio and at a California theme park, we once again have active measles cases within our boarders.

This issue happens to be one of my passions. What is your passion? I challenge you to find one issue and advocate for it. How will you be an advocate for your family, your patients, your community and your profession?

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DNPs & the Legislative Process
February 17, 2016 10:19 AM by Rebecca Bates
As we move through the legislative session in Virginia, I am reminded that there are multiple sides to each issue. As an APRN, I have worked in "green" states with full practice authority (FPA) and "red" states with restrictive practice regulations. The uphill battle to gain FPA in Virginia is constantly blocked by the Medical Society of Virginia and other groups who perceive the push for FPA as a threat to their income and turf. 

As NPs and DNPs in particular, we need to understand and help our colleagues and supporters to understand the legislative language. Current bills under consideration in our General Assembly address NPs practicing outside of a physician-led patient care team in specific settings. These settings include medically underserved areas or locations that suffer from 1.5 times the state unemployment rate. However, after subcommittee discussion, some of these bills received "substitutes" that removed the original language and substituted completely different language.

Amazingly, the same arguments that have been circulated for years by APRN opposition groups, have been re-circulated again this year: education is not as rigorous as physician education, NPs will not move to practice in rural and underserved areas if practicing in a FPA state, NPs are unsafe practitioners, NPs have worse outcomes, etc. Each of these claims has been debunked through rigorous research and decades of practice data and outcomes. 

Interestingly, in December 2015 and January 2016, there were two new studies published by Montana State University. One specifically addresses NP cost for caring for Medicare patients versus physician cost. The second specifically addresses NPs moving to rural practice in states with full practice authority. As DNPs, we need to help lead the movement to move all states into FPA by continuing to review the literature for additional supporting evidence and to counteract the loud voice of our opposition.

As DNPs, we need to be well versed in the arguments against FPA for APRNs and against the IOM recommendation to allow all nurses to practice to the full extent of their education and training. These restrictive practice environments are not only found in Federal and State regulations, but in our hospital and outpatient practices as well. In order to be an effective advocate for ourselves, our patients, and our profession, we need to be aware of and understand both sides of the argument.

I challenge you to become an advocate. Learn the legislative process and take an active role in health policy. 

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New Year Resolutions
January 6, 2016 12:28 PM by Rebecca Bates
Happy New Year! This morning, I completed a 10K. I am a runner and always start the New Year with a race. There is something about a group of people set on the same goal that encourages the best in everyone. Although I race throughout the year, this first race of the year sets the tone for the rest of my year and makes me feel that I have been part of something amazing from day one. This year, the race I ran was the "Resolution Race" with the proceeds benefitting local charities. Running on the first day of the year also gives me time to think about my other resolutions for the New Year.

Fundamentally, a resolution is an expression of the will, resolve, or determination of an individual or legislative body. As we start this New Year, my professional resolve is to continue advocating for full practice authority in the Commonwealth. 

Currently, only 21 states plus D.C. allow NPs to practice to the full extent of their education and training. Some of the barriers to full practice in states like mine are regulations requiring a physician to be the leader of a patient care team, joint boards of nursing and medicine, required collaborating agreement with a physician, and lack of legislative advocacy by all nurses to ensure we retain control over our professions. 

We should all be familiar by now with the numerous studies documenting the safety, cost-effective care, equal or improved patient outcomes, and patient satisfaction when a nurse practitioner rather than a physician provides care. This is not meant to endorse an opposition to physicians, but rather to highlight that nursing is a separate profession from medicine.     

As part of the nursing profession, we are also the most trusted profession in the United States! With all of this supporting evidence, how do we justify allowing others to control our profession? I firmly believe that teaching advocacy needs to start with the first nursing courses. 

As nurses, we are excellent patient advocates. As NPs, we need to be knowledgeable, confident, and passionate advocates for our profession. This means being able to articulate what an NP does, be knowledgeable about the scope of practice of the NP and be able to utilize various tools to communicate effectively with the public and elected officials. My second professional resolution this year is to work on improving education of nursing students at all levels in health policy advocacy.

Just as curricula are changing to reflect the increasing numbers of community based nurses rather than acute care, curricula need to include health policy advocacy. This will ensure our newest nursing graduates at all levels have a basic understanding of health policy and understand the importance of advocating for full practice authority legislation that reflects our scope of practice and the full extent of our education and training.

I hope part of your New Year's resolution includes taking a more active role in your profession. Together, we can all improve healthcare by harnessing the power of all nurses to advocate. I challenge you to become more active in advocacy efforts in your workplace, community, state and at the national level. Be Well!

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The DNP: Developing New Policy Advocates
December 9, 2015 9:31 AM by Rebecca Bates
The DNP has the power to change healthcare. We have an obligation, as nurses and as patient advocates, to use our knowledge, skills and abilities to gain a seat at the table.

As the largest healthcare workforce, with over 3.1 million registered nurses, we should be the go-to profession for issues about healthcare. However, we still lag far behind our physician colleagues in positions as elected officials, at national healthcare conferences and in the boardroom.

As a nurse practitioner, individuals in my profession are still frequently referred to as mid-level providers. As the saying goes, "if I am a mid-level, who is the low-level?" I believe our collective lack of advocacy for our profession of nursing over many generations has kept us beholden to others' direction and vision for healthcare.

As a recent DNP graduate (May 2015, Old Dominion University), I try to embrace as many of the DNP Essentials1 as I can every day. I have the skills and confidence to be a healthcare leader, a patient/profession/healthcare advocate, a scholar, an organizational innovator and a more effective advanced practice nurse.

I have learned to integrate new technologies into my patient care to improve outcomes and into my organizations to improve efficiency and delivery of care and education. Over all of these essentials, I have realized the importance of interprofessional collaboration as we all seek to improve patient outcomes. As an NP, I am educated and trained to provide high-quality, cost-effective healthcare resulting in improved patient outcomes. As a DNP, I can be a leader in interprofessional collaboration by gathering together those who seek to improve patient outcomes through cost-effective innovation. 

As an experienced RN and FNP, I have been a preceptor for students from many different universities over the years. I have realized many of these students do not recognize the power of advocacy. They shy away from anything that has the work "policy" or "lobbying."  Thinking about my education as a nurse, my only health policy in my BSN program was the nurses' legislative day at the capitol. In my MSN/Educator program, we had a few more health policy interaction requirements, but still no dedicated course for health policy.

Yet the American Association of Colleges of Nursing has included Health Policy as an Essential component of the BSN, MSN and DNP education.2 During my DNP program, I had an entire semester course in health policy and completed a health policy Fellowship. These experiences have committed me to being more involved in health policy in my state as well as at the federal level.

I believe we all have an obligation as members of the largest health profession in country to be advocates for our patients, professions and practice. We need to ensure the knowledge, skills and abilities are integrated throughout the nursing curriculum beginning at the BSN level and continuing through the doctoral level. How else can nurses truly be able to "practice to the fullest extent of their education and training" as advocated by the Institute of Medicine?3

References

1. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. The essentials of doctoral education for advanced nursing practice. http://www.aacn.nche.edu/publications/position/DNPEssentials.pdf

2. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Essentials series. http://www.aacn.nche.edu/education-resources/essential-series

3. Institute of Medicine. The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. http://iom.nationalacademies.org/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2010/The-Future-of-Nursing/Future%20of%20Nursing%202010%20Report%20Brief.pdf

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A Fresh Breath
February 11, 2015 1:09 PM by Keischa Cash

I have been enjoying going to work these days. That's a feeling I haven't felt in a while. Training these last 4 months was even more amusing than my last job. I had begun to think the only thing I was ever going to treat was URIs, back pain, and diabetes. Don't get me wrong, treating these ailments is important, but they don't excite me and I think I lost interest in primary care some time ago, I just don't know when.

Interest in your work is important. If you have no interest in what you do it will lead to dissatisfaction that spreads to all facets of your life. It can also make you less motivated to participate in other things that may interest you.  I am interested in entrepreneurship, scholarship, policy, and clinical practice, and where I was working was not inspiring me to push myself towards pursuing those professional aspirations. I want to feel inspired and motivated by my work and those I am surrounded by. I didn't just want to just go to work every day- I wanted to love it. You should love what you do. That's where I am right now. All of my previous positions have made me feel like just another number, just another provider. All I was needed for was to see patients and go home. Never asking me for my input or including me in decisions, never allowing me to feed my hunger to be more involved in the company I worked for. There is no chance for vertical mobility in organizations where there is already a hierarchy in place and if there ever was a chance, I never felt that way.

I don't feel like that anymore, and it's weird because I don't know that I actually have any of these freedoms that I discussed but I feel that I do. I am able to be more mobile since I now see patients in long-term care settings, which I love because I am not constrained to an office with no windows and preset lunch breaks. I am not pressured to see patients in 15 minute increments. Patients are no longer double and triple booked. I can take my time and enjoy my job. I can take my lunch breaks when I want, and I am able to freely go and come as I please-because the work environment and the position allow that. I am in charge of ME- and I like that. I set my own schedule and I leave for work when I want and I go home and finish my work day when I want. 

I guess all I ever really wanted was freedom, freedom from a constrictive work environment, freedom to relax and have balance with work and home. I have all of those things now and could not imagine life how it used to be.

Dermatology has offered me a fresh breath, a new start. 

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Ethics in DNP Practice
January 21, 2015 8:46 AM by Walton Reddish

Morrison and Furlong (2013) identify the four major ethical theories - nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy and justice - and apply them to healthcare. It is the ethical responsibility of the provider to ensure that these principles are upheld, regardless of the work load or stresses of the office practice.

  • Nonmaleficence: The first thought in any provider's mind has to be to prevent further harm to the patient. Even in a busy practice, the APN must take the time to listen to the patient, review the history, and make a diagnosis. Hurrying through any of these steps can result in misdiagnosis, missed drug allergies or interactions, and potential harm to the patient. It is important that the APN remains in control of the patient schedule and to never allow the schedule to build to the point that the patient is placed in jeopardy.
  • Beneficence: The concept of beneficence goes beyond prescribing the appropriate treatment. The APN must also narrow the studies and treatment to only those things that will aid in the diagnosis or treatment of the condition. In a healthcare environment where the emphasis is on maximum billing, the provider must be mindful of the orders that are written and the services that are being billed. If, for example, MRIs are being ordered because the office manager thinks that the office owned MRI is being underutilized, then the patient's best interests are not being met.
  • Autonomy:  As Morrison and Furlong (2013) point out, the ethics of healthcare go beyond doing good and not doing harm. As the provider considers the treatment options, it is imperative that the competent patient (or the surrogate for a patient unable to make decisions) is a working member of the decision making team. The APN must be careful to make sure that the patient is properly informed and that they understand that information. The good intentions of nonmaleficence and beneficence mean very little if the provider acts against the patient's wishes.
  • Justice: Finally, the busy provider must be careful to deliver the same quality of care to every patient. Every provider encounters patients who try their patience or who do not fit the provider's concepts of responsible behavior. Despite their internal conflict with the individual's personality or lifestyle, the APN must focus on the presenting problem and treat that problem as they would with any other patient. There are times when the treatment options are narrowed by the insurance coverage or the patient's ability to pay. It is the provider's responsibility to explore every option to find affordable options or to help the patient find ways to finance the care they need. It is not enough to simply write a prescription when the patient does not have the resources to fill it.

For many providers, the ethical concepts relayed by Morrison and Furlong (2013) are the tenets by which they practice. While they may not use the same words to describe what they do, the basic philosophies are the same.   

Morrison, E.E., & Furlong, B. (2013). Health care ethics: Critical issues for the 21st century (3rd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

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